Whatever happened to the Williams sisters ?

On 13th February 1825, in Dartford, Kent –  Joseph Williams, born around 1798 (but I don’t know where), married Christiana Badcock Braund, born on 2nd April 1803 in Lawhitton, Cornwall. She was the daughter of William Braund (1766-1840) and Mary Badcock (1772-1843).
He was a Linen Draper
They had three daughters, Rosina, Annie and Christiana, all born in Dartford.
Rosina Williams was baptised on 27th November 1825.
Anne (or Ann) Williams was baptised on 12th July 1829.
Christiana Braund Williams was baptised on 29th August 1834.

Tragedy Strikes

In September 1834, when their daughters were nine, five and one month, both parents Joseph and Christiana Badcock fell ill.
Joseph wrote a will on 7th September 1834, leaving everything to Christiana Badcock Williams. It appointed her, and her brother, William Braund as executors. It was witnessed by Ann Northall, who appears to have been a neighbour in Dartford. Joseph died on 17th September and the will was proved on 26th September.
Christiana wrote a longer will on the 13th October 1834, when she was already a widow – using William Braund, watchmaker, and Charles Northall (brother of Ann Northall above), as trustees, until her children reached twenty one. It was witnessed by two more of her brothers, John and Thomas Braund, and by Mary Cartwright. Christiana died on 16th October 1834.
What followed this tragedy is the story of a family pulling together, all over the country, to look after three little orphan girls.

Introducing the Braund brothers

Christiana Badcock Braund was one of  the nine children of William Braund and Mary Badcock, all born in Lawhitton in Cornwall. She had two older sisters, and two older brothers, and three younger brothers, and a younger sister, putting her neatly in the middle. As most of the brothers will crop up in the story of her children I will introduce them here.

William (1798-1890)

The eldest brother (though having two older sisters), in 1834 he was probably a watchmaker, living in Dartford Kent, and married to Elizabeth Sim. with a young son, William. In October 1841 Elizabeth died, leaving William with his son William, then aged nine, another son, James, then aged six, a daughter, Elizabeth, then aged four, and another daughter, Jean aged two. What happened to them is a whole other story, but he later remarried twice.

John (1800-1882)

He was drawing teacher and artist, and in 1834 was probably already living in London, married to Elizabeth Theodisia Cartwright, with a one year old son, John Joseph. His wife, Elizabeth, died in 1841, after leaving him with John Joseph, now aged eight, and a daughter, Elizabeth Theodissia, now aged four.

James (1806-1887)

He was a farmer, farming 200 acres, in Boyton, Cornwall. In 1834 he was married to Hannah Pring Lang, and had a daughter, Maria, only just born.

Thomas (1808-1843)

He was living in Launceston with his mother, Mary nee Badcock in 1841, his father having died in 1840. Thomas died on 6th March 1843, and his mother also died around March 1843.

George (1812-1901)

George was a Silk Mercer in Dartford, Kent, like Joseph Williams, at least in 1851, which is the first time I can find him in the census, but described as a Linen Draper in 1861. By 1871, George Braund, he was a manufacturer of hosiery, employing 50 men, 120 women, 20 boys and 30 girls, and had moved to Barrow upon Soar, Liecestershire. He married Ann Roughton and had a son George Percival and daughter Agnes Mary. He continued to live there, at Strancliffe Hall, until his death on 9th June 1901, when he left £7706 to his widow Ann.

Strancliffe Hall, Home of George Braund Click the image for article from Loughbrough Echo

 

So, what did happen to the Williams sisters ?

Christiana

In 1841, aged 6, Christiana was staying with her uncle, Thomas Braund, in St Stephens, Cornwall, along with his mother (her grandmother), Mary Badcock. Thomas died in 1843, as did Mary, so Christiana would have had to move on.
In 1851, Christiana, aged 16, was staying with her uncle, William Braund – a watchmaker, employing 8 men, in Bexley near Dartford, along with his son James and daughters Elizabeth and Jean , and his nephew, William Peardon – also a watchmaker. William’s wife, Elizabeth Sim, had died in 1841.
By 1861 Christiana was staying with her sister Rosina, who was now married to William Braund Box, in Highgate.
She had moved on again by 1871, to stay with James Braund, her Cornish farming  uncle, now a widower, as his wife Hannah, died in 1868. Also living there are James’ daughter, Maria and son, John Bernard Lang.
Christiana clearly got on well with her cousin John, as they married in early 1879.
Unfortunately John died on 23rd October 1900, and it looks as if she continued running the farm until she died on 8th September 1907 at St Thomas, Launceston, Cornwall, leaving £986 12s 11d to William Williams Box, solicitor.


This should be a map showing where Christiana Braund lived – I am still working on this bit. She does go back and forth across the country several times before she settles down.

Anne

She was staying with her uncle, George Braund in the 1851 Census, and continued to stay with him, acting as his housekeeper, through 1861, when at least during the census, they were being visited by my Great Grandfather, John Robert Box, then aged 11. She moved with George to Barrow upon Soar, Liecestershire, by which time he has a wife, Ann, and son George, aged 5, and daughter, Agnes, aged 3.
Anne continued to live with George Braund until at least the 1901 Census, but I do not know what happens to her after George’s death on 9th June 1901.

Rosina

Rosina married William Braund Box on10th February 1845. I think she may have lived, like her other sisters with George Braund immediately after the death of her parents. It may seem a strange co-incidence that Rosina should marry someone with a middle name of Braund,  but the eldest of the Braund siblings, Elizabeth Braund (1793-1849) married John Box (1788-1849) on 9th June 1818, and they had a son, William Braund Box in 1815. They were my Great Great Grandparents, and one of their eight children was John Robert Box, my Great Grandfather.

Information from Great Aunt Rose

In a letter from my Great Aunt Rose Box, to my mother on 5th February 1967 she writes

Now about Christianna Badcock Braund. I have looked in the family bible and see that she died in 1834, aged 31, so she must have been born in 1803. Her husband, Joseph Williams, died a month later to they probably had an infectious disease, maybe typoid ! They lived and died at Dartford, Kent, where he had a drapery (?) shop. Her younger brother, George Braund took their three girls to his home and Rosina became his housekeeper until she married her cousin, William Braund Box. Then Anne was housekeeper to her uncle and Christianna married her cousin John Braund and lived at a farm at Newton near Launceston. I remember all three quite well. Rosina was my dear grandmother with whom I often stayed at Highgate. I stayed for a time with Aunt Chrissie at Newton while I was on a visit to Uncle Arthur Box at Launceston, when I was 9. Little Auntie Annie often stayed with Grannie Box at Hampstead.. She did beautiful needlework. I think George Braund had a business in South London and so was Christianna’s nearest relative when they lived at Dartford. Later he had a business at Loughborough and a big house somewhere near. I went one day to see Aunt George while I was staying with Aunt Janet at Syston. when I was 16. Your father could tell you more about the Braunds as he had to go to Cornwall to trace next of kin to Ann Peardon who died without a will and left some money. Her mother was Mary Braund and sister to Christianna.

Notes

John Braund, referred to above it John Burnard Lang Braund, son of James Braund. He and Christianna lived at Newton Farm, Boyton. (OSM)

Aunt Elwina was (probably) born Elwina Joyce in about 1853, in Hinkley, Leicestershire, and married Arthur Williams Box about 1884.

Visit to uncle Arthur Box when I was 9

Great Aunt Rose was born in 1865, so this would have been about 1874. Arthur Williams Box (1853-1940), was  living in Hornsey in 1871, and in Canterbury in 1881, when his occupation is listed as Jeweller. I do have a note which says that he bought the Foundry at Maramchurch from his cousins, Edward and Henry. He would have been 21, which does seem quite young. His occupation, by 1911 is shown as Iron and Brass Founder, and his business as Kitchen Range Manufacturer.

Visit to Aunt Janet at Syston when I was 16

In 1881 I cant find who would have been Aunt Janet. Aunt George would be George Braund’s wife, Ann – presumably called Aunt George due the number of Anns in the family. I will update this post if I find out more.

Answering the call – the Military and National Service of 14773046 – Signalman Lines R.

My father, Roger Lines, on reaching the age of 18 in May 1944, was conscripted into the Army, under the terms of the National Service (Armed Forces) Act 1939.

Training

He was initially send for Officer Training in Northern Ireland, but was not bossy enough, so was sent to train at Catterick as a Radio Mechanic (Signalman). He was in the General Service Corps from 1st June 1944 to 15th November 1944 – this may have been when he was training. He was transferred on 16th November 1944 to the Royal Signals, where he remained until 4th February 1948.

India

He sailed to India on the Empress of Scotland, which had been Empress of Japan until October 1942, when she was renamed. (My notes say renamed to Princess of Canada, but I suspect this is because she belonged to Canadian Pacific).
I am not sure of the date order of some of these snippets as they come from notes from conversations with my mother, rather than some documented narrative.
He was responsible for the big transmitters which covered all of India when he was attached to GHQ in Delhi.
He spent some time at Quetta, up in the hills.
Tim thinks he may have been at Simla as well.
He fell off a 30′ bamboo ladder while putting up Christmas Decorations and received a scar, which was his war wound.
He went to a Gandhi meeting.
He met Pamela Mountbatten, daughter of Lord Mountbatten, serving coffee in the canteen.
He became a Methodist in the Army, as he had to attend services with some denomination, and they had the best singing.
On being sent to a senior officers house, to mend the radio there, he, along with two Indian servants, was offered refreshments, and in the interests of equality, took one of what looked like a couple of pastries, rather than the nicest looking western cake. It turned out to be a curry puff, and the experience left him with a suspicion of curry from that time on.
He also went trekking in the Himalayas with Martin Grey ? and employed porters to carry luggage.

Discharge and return home

His release from the army is dated 20th November 1947, but as he did not leave the Royal Signals until 4th Febuary 1948, I supect it took him this long to return to England. He told me he spent a long time, with many others, in a holding camp in India waiting for space to be available on a ship.
According to Tim

Pretty sure he didn’t return home until demobbed, and when he did he brought chocolate with him, probably unobtainable in the UK and anyway rationed, but in the Indian heat or perhaps on the boat it had all melted and resembled Aero when it re-congealed.

 

Letters

My father wrote several letters home, some of which have been preserved, and these give some information about what life was like.

He also wrote a letter to the BBC, through me, around 31st December 2005, which I reproduce here.

Dear Sirs, I was recently watching a TV Program inviting people to write in or relate their War Time experiences.
I was called up on my 18th birthday and reported to the Beds and Herts camp. I was then posted to Northern Ireland (thankfully more or less peaceful then).
I enjoyed this period and got to know and like the Ulster folk. I was then posted to Catterick Camp to train as a Radio Mechanic. This lasted about 15-18 weeks. My next posting was to GHQ signals in Quetta (Balochistan). Unfortunately I fell onto a concrete floor of the Barracks and thus spent my first Christmas in Quetta Hospital.
Our boat was the first to go to India after the war ended1 and we were not sure whether the Japanese submarines knew that the war had ended.
At Quetta I had the amazing luck to be present at the last Tribal Durbar (which had gone on unchanged since the rule of Queen Victoria.) The Durbar is held out in the desert so no tribal chief is able to take precedence over the others. The first day of the Durbar is devoted to ceremonial. The Governor General is in full Diplomatic dress, his chest is covered in gold braid and his silver sword gleaming. Each chief bows to the Agent to the Governor General, representing the Crown (George VI at the time). The Indian Army laid on a parachute drop – no doubt to impress the local tribes. The next two days were given over to local sports such as camel, horse and donkey racing, tent pegging etc. It was quite obvious that these second two days were for fun, and quite subsidiary to the first day. That is why they were all gathered together here.
From Quetta to Delhi by train I saw quite a bit of North West India, and later managed to have three short holidays in the foothills of India, as far North West as Sandakphu (13,000 feet) and saw much in the way of Buddhist temples.
I was in Darjeeling when Indian Independence Day took place with much celebration as this area is largely Hindu.
I greatly enjoyed my time in India and fortunately escaped the worst of the communal violence. It was only many years later that I read a full account. During this period when I was back in Delhi I went to one of Gandhi’s Prayer Meetings and was able to take photographs of him quite close up.
Shortly after this I was posted to Deolali Transit Camp and so back to Britain after two and half years in India.

Roger Lines

Notes

First Boat

The first sailing of the Princess of Scotland, to go to India after the end of the war was:

  • From Liverpool on 3rd October 1945 to Taranto on 9th October – 2616 miles
  • From Taranto on 9th October to Port Said on 11th October – 964 miles
  • From Port Said on 12th October to Bombay on 19th October – 2973 miles
Other Notes

I noted these asides while the main letter was being written.

  • he left school at 17 and worked for a year as a forest worker before being called up.
  • he spent as much time as he could Youth Hostelling, while training in Northern Ireland.

Christmas letter from Roger in India, 18th December 1946

This letter, shown as number 15 of the ones my father, Roger Lines, wrote to his parents, referred to as M&D. Unfortunately I do not have the others, which would have given some better record of his National Service. Most of the information I have relies on anecdotes from others.

18th ? December – letter 15

The Usual

Wednesday

Night.

Dear M and D,

The reason why you are getting this letter is that I am on Duty Clerk again tonight, and the light is rather poor to read with. Incidentally it is also to thank you very much for your Christmas card and letter of the 9th. In reply to your queries, I have now got my spectacles, but have heard no more about the watch, so I shall wait a few more days before I liven them up. As to this business about presents I shall certainly send some home, as clothes are not yet rationed here. If you don’t think I can afford to pay for things, then say what you need most and when I send it home you can pay the price into my P.O. account. In this way you can get some things cheaper via Quetta, than buying them in London. I recently bought a nice pair of gloves which have a fur lining right down to the finger tips for 12 chips. In England they cost at least 45 shillings. The other lads buy fancy brass ware, cigarette cases and fancy table cloths which are more for looks than use. If you do not write and tell me what you need most, bearing in mind the restrictions of a previous letter, I shall send you a large size brass elephant which can be used to get in ones way and collect the dust.

Woollens and silks, especially the latter are the most expensive things out here, and a made to measure tweed suit cost about 100 chips without a waistcoat. You can get sheets, pillow slips, English Morley socks, towels, dress lengths, silk pyjamas, scarves etc. here, but films are bad and so are rubber goods such as hot water bottles.

The new shoes I have got are quite comfortable, though I only wear them on special occasions, as although shoe repairs take 2 days it costs 7/6d to have a pair soled and heeled with good leather. I sold the others to a fellow here who they fit quite well. Richard wrote to me yesterday and also sent a Christmas card, so I must write back to him as soon as I have finished this letter. He has been over Battersea Power Station, where he was much impressed by the quiet and the way that everything, even the boilers were remote controlled. Quetta is in a plain of roughly circular shape, the size of this plain being about 10-12 miles across. All around is a ring of hills, mountains you would call them, which have about three gaps in the circle. through these passes come the roads from Persia, the Indus basin, and Fort Sandeman. The latter being about 300 miles from here, and one of our outposts. There is a towering range of hills behind the camp and about three miles from it called the Murdar Ghar. At present this range, which is nearly 11,000 ft high is covered with snow, and it is expected to stay like this until next spring, when I shall try and climb it, if I am still here. The weather is colder now and there is much more cloud. Formerly we used to have clear blue skies all day long, but now it is much more like England, although mostly the few rainstorms we have had, come at night. Thank you very much for the description of the Bhotan Pine which I read with great interest. Here’s hoping the pen arrives sometime. I have now got quite a row of Christmas cards, – two from Michael, yours, one from Richard and one from Tyrell-Green. I shall always remember his kindness to me while I was at the Holtons.

Very little of importance has happened since I wrote last except for two things (i) A walk into the hills with Luckock and (ii) My work.

(i) On Sunday afternoon I started out with Luckock across the desert plain towards the hills. It is very difficult for me to describe what we did and where we went without a map, so I shall try and make a rough sketch-map in my next letter. I will also spend part of my time in sketching, although I may not send the results home as they will probably be too awful. We walked across the desert for 2 miles or so, then started up a narrow valley, which rapidly grew narrower, until we were walking along in a narrow chasm, only about six feet wide, and with vertical or overhanging rocky walls going straight up for 80-500 ft on both sides. This crack in the rock, for it was hardly more than that continued for ¾ of a mile until eventually we came out into the sunshine, like moles coming out of their tunnels. We were only a quarter of a mile from the dam wall of the Hanna Lake reservoir. This artificial lake is dried up, but was once a mile square. Now all that is left is the cracked muddy bottom, the marks made by the high water level all around the dam. There is a proper cart track down from the lake, and we were soon on the road back to camp. As we walked along this, four Pathars or whatever they were, jumped off their bicycles and said “Salaam Sahib” (Good Day) so we said Salaam back and we soon engaged in a long discussion in Urdu. They wanted to act as guides while we went out on a hunting expedition (safari) and I tried to explain that we were not “burra sahibs” but just poor Signalmen who couldn’t afford such things. Further down the road another man tried to sell us enough wood (lakfri) for 60 men. They can’t distinguish between the B.O.Rs and the Officers I’m afraid. It all helps to improve one’s Urdu however. I am now in charge of the brigade workshops and they expect all sorts of weird things which didn’t come on the course. If I make too many mistakes I expect I may either get down graded in trade or posted to another unit or both. So wish me luck as need plenty of it. You are probably in the middle of Christmas festivities now so Happy New Year, love Roger.

 Notes

Richard Lines

Richard Lines was my father’s cousin, he was the son of Arthur Lines, the younger brother of my Grandfather, George Lines.

Bhotan Pine

This is also known as Bhutan Pine, is native to the Himalayas, and shows that even before he went off to study Forestry at Bangor my father had a keen interest in trees. Indeed many of the pictures he took in India were of trees.

Urdu

My father clearly occupied him time in India learning Urdu, something which I had not known, though I know my Grandfather encouraged learning languages.

Happy Birthday, Tim – letter from Jalapahar, 29th August 1947

My father, Roger Lines, was posted to India for his National Service. I don’t know how much, if at all, he managed to return home during this time, but he did write several letters, some of which I have. This one is to his youngest brother, Tim to wish him a Happy Birthday.

29th August

14778046 SIGMN. LINES

JALPAHAR CAMP

DARJEELING

Dear Tim,

This will probably be a bit early, but better early than late, and it will be the last opportunity for writing till I get back from the trek on the evening of the 6th September. Anyhow before I forget what this letter is about – Happy Birthday ! I suppose you will be going into long trousers soon and then I shan’t recognise you. Have you started growing yet ? or have you decided that chess and the county cricket championship are more important activities. After laboriously working it out on my fingers I see you will have attained the great age of fifteen, only another year and you’ll be able to get married ! if you want to.

As for a birthday present I seem to have got so much out of touch with you that I don’t know what your tastes are, so I shall just have to see if I can pick up something suitable to what I was like at 15. If I can remember that far back.

 I suppose that now you are the only one left at home you are having to do all the chicken feeding, washing up, carrying coal (when there is any) which normally would have been done by one of us, Hard cheese !

I hear that you are all traipsing off to Poole this year, I hope you have a good time and are not too seasick in Jeremy’s sailing dinghy. I suppose you also have a go at making dams and river systems in the traditional Lines spirit, as has been done in the past, and doubtless will be done in the future.

Have you got any plans for the future ? The best thing is to stay on at school as long as you can do as you won’t be able to get such a good start anywhere else; however I am sermonising which is useless on one’s birthday.

So in spite of the ration cuts, eat drink and be merry for tomorrow who knows ? You will also have the doubtful pleasure of seeing my face some time before Xmas so till then I will just say All the Best

from Roger

p.s. I include some snaps.

 
 

Daddy, what did YOU do in the Great War?

Daddy, what did YOU do in the Great War - recruiting Poster
Daddy, what did YOU do in the Great War – recruiting Poster – click for link to Wikipedia article

We have mostly not been a particularly military family, but several family members lives were more directly touched by conflict.

World War One (and its aftermath)

George Edward Lines

His official war record has its own page here. He has a brief record at Lives of the First World War.

Walter Lines

Grandpa’s older Brother. According to http://www.vam.ac.uk/moc/toy-manufacturers/lines-bros-ltd/ Walter, having risen to the rank of Captain in the Royal Horse Artillery Company, was mentioned in dispatches. It is possible that this is his record at Lives of the First World War.

Arthur Edwin Lines (1892-1962)

Grandpa‘s younger brother, was in the Rifle Brigade, Regimental Number 211508, possibly from 18th August 1915 to 18th September 1916, and was an Acting Company Sergeant Major.  He has a brief record at Lives of the First World War.

Edward William Wise Rebbeck

He joined the Kings Rifles, became a temporary 2nd Lieutenant, and died in a flying accident in 1916. He has a brief record at Lives of the First World War.

Leopold Edward Rebbeck

He served in the Navy in both wars, starting as a Midshipman in 1914, and rising to Rear Admiral by the time he retired from the Navy in 1955. He has a brief record at Lives of the First World War.

Margaret Ada Box

She served as a nurse in Serbia in 1918-19. She has a brief record at Lives of the First World War.

Harold James Cansdale

He was in the Merchant Navy during the war – He has a brief record at Lives of the First World War. He then went on to be the civilian in charge of the Officers Mess at Caterick Camp, where Michael Lines would go for his training, but would have retired before the Second World War.

William John (Jack) Webster

Other than that he fought in the First World War, and finished it as a Sergent Instructor there is very little record of his military career. There is a brief record at Lives of the First World War.

Ernest Whiteside Huddleston

My Great Aunt Lorna Box , daughter of William Box, brother of John Robert Box, married Sir Ernest Huddleston in 1932. He was senior marine transport officer of Bombay during World War One, being promoted to Captain on 6th December 1918, and was commended in the London Gazette of  4th July 1919 (page 8384).

Captain Ernest Whiteside Huddleston, C.I.E., R.N. (Captain R.I.M.)
For valuable service as Principle Marine Transport Officer, Bombay and Karachi.

He first appears in the Navy Lists of the Royal Indian Marine as being promoted to Sub-lieutenant on 12th November 1895. He retired, then ranked Captain, on 11th December 1925. He was Knighted in 1939.

Arnold Freeman

Arnold Freeman was a Conscientious Objector during the First World War. There is a brief record at Lives of the First World War.

Frank Richard Freeman

The brother of Sir Ralph, Arnold, Peter, the more famous Freemans, he was a Civil Engineer in the 1911 Census, so it would be reasonable if he signed up to join the Royal Marines. If he is the right one then there is a brief record at Lives of the First World War.

James Harvey Bryson

The grandson of James Mackay Bryson (1824-1894), brother of Robert Bryson Junior. His father was also called Robert Bryson, and lived in Antigua. James is mentioned on the Bryson Family Grave at New Calton Cemetry.  He was a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Field Artillery Unit Text: “Y” 24th Trench Mortar Battery, and fell in action on 20th October 1918. He has a brief record at Lives of the First World War. He is mentioned in the Caribbean WW1 Casualties Roll of  Honour.

Leonard Horner Bryson

The son of William Alexander Bryson. By 1901 he was a Physician and Surgeon. He served in the Royal Army Medical Corps, was promoted to Temporary Lieutenant on 1st June 1915, and ended the war as a Captain. He as a brief record at Lives of the First World War.

World War Two (and its aftermath)

Michael Lines

Trained at Catterick Camp, as a Radio Operator. He was a vegetarian, and was sent boxes of eggs from the hens my grandparents kept at Pickwick. He made good use of the record library at Catterick, and would write recommendations of records for my grandparents to buy.
He was posted to Netanya in Palestine for a while. He described the drive to Bagdad across the desert at the season when a little rain brings out the little flowers – a magical sight.
According to a conversation with my mother he developed sandfly fever during his time in the Middle East, which is presumably why he ended up in Mauritius.
Later he was stationed on Mauritius, where he enjoyed the abundance of fruit and other vegetarian food, and manned the communications across the Indian Ocean.
He returned in 1948, on the Empire Windrush, returning to England in May, which will have been one of the last voyages before the famous voyage which brought many British African-Caribbean people to Britain. He did not enjoy the voyage, due to seasickness. On their return Michael and Roger both went Croydon Polytechnic to refresh their school knowledge before going to University, like many other returning servicemen.
 

Roger Lines

Due to his public school education my father was sent, initially, for officers training, but when his technical aptitude was discovered the army wisely decided that his talents were wasted as a leader of men, and he trained as a Radio Operator instead. He served in India, and was wounded falling off a ladder while putting up the Christmas Decorations. More on his time spent serving his country in the armed forces can be found in another post.

Jeremy Lines

Due to his having just finished an apprenticeship as a boat builder, he was naturally send to be an aircraft mechanic with the Royal Air Force, some time after 1951 as his National Service did not start until his apprenticeship completed.

Tim Lines

Started his National Service in January 1951.

Harold Edward Cansdale

Was in the “Green Howards“, according to my mothers notes, and was killed in a truck accident in Egypt in 1948, aged 20. From the Suez Roll of Honour he was in the 3rd GHQ Signals. Regiment with army number 14072667.
 

Other conflicts

General William Webster

An ancestor of the Webster branch of the tree was apparently General William Webster, a friend and admirer of General Burgoyne, who named his son William Burgoyne Webster.
He would have been active around the time of the American War of Independence.
 

Robert Bryson and Sons of Edinburgh

Robert Bryson (1778 – 1852) was a Clock and Watch Maker of Edinburgh, as well as being Clock and Watchmaker to Queen Victoria and Co-Founder of what would become Heriot Watt University.
He had four sons and two daughters

  1. Alexander Bryson (1816-1886)
  2. William Gillepsie Bryson (1818-1906)
  3. Robert Bryson (1819-1886)
  4. Margaret Muir Bryson (1821-1873)
  5. James Mackay Bryson (1824-1894)
  6. Helen Cockburn Bryson (1826-1912)

His third son, Robert Bryson junior, married Mary Ann Braund Box (1817-1899) on 10th July 1843 – possibly at St Cuthberts, Edinburgh (although some records suggest the same date, but at her home town of Launceston,  Cornwall).
Mary Ann Braund Box was the daughter of John Box (1788-1849), who was also a Watch and Clock Maker. He was also my Great Great Great Grandfather. John Box’s son William Braund Box (1815-1891), Mary’s elder brother, was also a watch and clock maker.  There was clearly a close and ongoing connection between the Box and Bryson families.
Christina L. Box, eldest daughter of William Braund Box and his wife Rosina (nee Williams) was born in Holland , Edinburgh in 1848 – when her parents were probably visiting the Brysons (I am not sure where Holland in Edinburgh was). The birth was attended by Dr Simpson, after whom the Simpson Memorial Ward of the Royal Infirmary  (where I was born) was named.
My Great Grandfather, John Robert Box, lived  for three years with Robert Bryson junior, and John’s aunt Mary at their house in Edinburgh in the 1870s, and is recorded as a visitor there in the 1871 Census.

Traveling to Edinburgh

Traveling by Stagecoach. Click for Historic UK page about Stagecoaches

I suspect the 1843 marriage between Robert Bryson junior and Mary Box took place in Edinburgh, as they would have then set up home together. Whether it was the bride or groom who traveled, it would have been by stage coach, or possibly mail coach as the East Coast Main Line was not completed until 1846, and the Caledonian Line did not reach Edinburgh until 1848.
According to the Georgian Index web site the mail coach took about 60 hours to reach Edinburgh from London

Robert Bryson senior (1778-1852)

Robert Bryson 1778-1852, Chronometer and Clockmaker, photographed in 1843 – portrait in the National Gallery of Scotland.

Born 25th August 1778 in South Leith, the son of Alexander Bryson (1740-1823) and Helen Cockburn, he married Janet Gillepsie (1788-1858) on 29th December 1815 in the parish of North Leith.
They were living at 5, South Bridge in 1816 when their eldest son, Alexander, was born.
According to Smith’s (1903) A Handbook & Directory of Old Scottish Clockmakers from 1540 to 1850 A.D.

The clock he made for the Observatory, referred to above can now be seen at the Old City Observatory on Calton Hill, in its Clocks collection.

There are pictures of one of the clocks he made at http://www.british-antiqueclocks.com/stock/robert-bryson-edinburgh/

Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh

He was proposed as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh by Thomas Brisbane, 6th Governor of New South Wales, and Astronomer (after whom Brisbane, in Australia was named).

Connection with Herriot Watt University

According to the Edinburgh University History site on Leonard Horner

In 1821, Horner founded the School of Arts in Edinburgh, for the teaching of mechanics. He had been inspired by a conversation with Robert Bryson, a respected Edinburgh businessman, and owner of a watchmakers shop. The two men fell into conversation, and, prompted by a question from Horner, Bryson expressed some frustration that young men entering his trade hardly ever received any mathematical education, and that this had a negative effect on their daily lives.
Horner had an idea that a means might be devised of providing such education for the working classes. His outline of a proposed school was circulated to selected master mechanics, in order that they could gauge interest amongst their workmen. Only a month after the conversation in Bryson’s shop, a committee had formed with the purpose of bringing the plan into fruition. The first institution specifically designed to provide practical technical education for the working classes, the: School of Arts of Edinburgh for the Education of Mechanics in Such Branches of Physical Science as are of Practical Application in their several trades opened, in October 1821, in Niddry Street, Edinburgh. It was an immediate success. Probably the first institution founded specifically for the technical education of the artisan classes, the School of Arts heralded a new era in the history of education in Britain. As a result Lord Cockburn described Horner as ‘indirectly the founder of all such institutions’. Horner was also one of the founders of the Edinburgh Academy.

According to the Heriot Watt Universiy site

The lack of technical and scientific education available for workers was becoming a problem. One day, linen merchant and social reformer Leonard Horner discussed the problem with his friend clock maker Robert Bryson who was finding it difficult to obtain classes for his apprentices. They decided to solve the problem themselves, and with the support of wealthy Edinburgh citizens such as Sir Walter Scott, Lord Cockburn and the Craig family of Riccarton who agreed to give annual subscriptions to help pay for the cost of classes, set up evening classes with fees that working men could afford.
On 16th October 1821 the School of Arts of Edinburgh “for the instruction of mechanics in such branches of physical science as are of practical application in their several trades” held the first lecture in chemistry at St Cecilia’s concert hall in the Old Town. Despite criticism from the establishment fearing educating the lower classes would lead to revolution, the School also received support from The Scotsman, and within a month 452 students had enrolled. Within 30 years there were 700 Mechanics Institutes in Britain and the movement had also developed in American and Australia.

Burial

He is buried, along with several other members of the family at New Calton Burial Ground. The Find a Grave site has an entry for him.

Robert Bryson junior (1819-1886)

Sculpture of Robert Bryson, junior, by William Brodie, click for link to William Brodie article

He lived at 17, Bruntsfield Place (OSM) from at least the 1861Census until his death on 20th March 1861.
Like his father, he was a clockmaker, employing 16 men and boys in 1861, and Clockmaker to Her Majesty (Queen Victoria) in 1871.
John Robert Box is listed as a visitor in the 1871 Census.
I inherited a silver fruit knife from him.

Robert Bryson’s obituary in The Scotsman on 22nd March 1886 reads

The late Mr. Robert Bryson – Edinburgh has lost a worthy citizen by the death of Mr. Robert Bryson, watch and clock maker, Princes Street. Mr. Bryson, who had been suffering for some time from a painful disease, had been practically laid aside from business for the last two months.His death, which was not unlooked for as the termination of his illness, took place on Saturday afternoon as his residence, 17 Bruntsfield Place. In public life, Mr. Bryson was chiefly associated with the Merchant Company, of which for the last twenty-eight years he was an active member and office-bearer.Four years after his admission he was elected an Assistant, and held that office from 1861 to 1864.In the latter year he was called to be Master of the Company, and filled that position with ability for three years.Of the George Watson, James Gillespie, and Daniel Stewart Trusts, which are managed by the Company, he was a Governor.Of the Merchant Maiden Hospital he was a Governor for twelve years.To its affairs he devoted much time, particularly to the management of the Peterhead estates.In this connection he took much interest in the improvement of the harbors, and in promoting the movement for a National Harbour of refuge at that port.For five years (1874-9) Mr. Bryson was one of the trustees, and for two years honorary collector, of the institutions in which he took a kindly concern was James Gillespie’s Hospital, of which for six years he acted as treasurer with the view of saving expense in the management at a time when the income was not so large as it is now.The welfare of the old people who resided in the Hospital was near to his heart, and he did much to promote their happiness and comfort.The feuing arrangements of the hospital property were also to him a subject of consideration, and he had not a little to so with the negotiations which led to the formation of the Colinton Road bridge. But, indeed, there was no department of the Company’s business which did not benefit by his advice and labours.One other scheme which may be specially mentioned as having his active support was the Provisional Order under which the splendid schools of the Company were organized.When he retired from the Mastership in 1877, a cordial and unanimous vote of thanks was awarded to him “for the great interest he has taken in the affairs of the Company, and for the efficient manner in which he had fulfilled the duties of the chair. ”Since 1876 he has been the Company’s representative at the Leith Dock Commission, and has taken a full share of the work of management of the port and harbour of Leith.At other public boards he was also useful and welcome member.He was one of the managers of the Infirmary, appointed by the contributors, chairman of the Royal Asylum, chairman of the Scottish Trade Protection Society, a director of the Watt Institution and a life member of the Heriot-Watt Trust, a governor of Trade Maiden Hospital, a manger of the Savings Bank, a J.P. for the city, one of the Council of the Dean Guild Court, and for some years auditor of the city accounts.By all with he was associated in these public offices he was held in regard, and his death will be mourned not only by his family, but by a wide circle of friends.

Bryson Road (OSM) in Edinburgh was named after him.

BRYSON ROAD   After Robert Bryson, watchmaker, member of the Merchant Coy. Master of the Merchants Coy. 1874-76. Superiors of the grounds.

Burial

He is buried at Warriston Cemetery, along with Mary, in section A2 #538, with a monument by Thomas Stuart Burnett. Unfortunately his monument has been vandalised, as there was presumably some sculpture, which is now missing.

The inscription on the main part of the monument reads

TO THE MEMORY

OF

ROBERT BRYSON

BORN 26TH JUNE 1819

DIED 20TH MARCH 1886

AND OF HIS WIFE

MARY ANN BRAUND BOX

BORN 27TH MAY 1817

DIED 9TH JUNE 1899

Also in the base of the monument are other inscriptions related to other family members.

Elizabeth Box, died 16th August 1852, aged about 26, was the younger sister of Mary Ann Braund Box, and lived with her and Robert at 65, Princess Street in the 1851 Census.
Elizabeth Box Bryson (27th January 1853 – 9th January 1916) was the daughter of  Robert and Mary Ann Bryson. She died, a spinster, aged 62.
Alfred Box Bryson (21st April 1855 – 7th December 1931) was the son of Robert and Mary Ann Bryson. He was a writer and Solicitor, and married Edith Baldwin, having a daughter, Elizabeth S. Bryson in 1894. He died in South Africa, aged 76, four years after Edith died.
Edith May Baldwin (1857 – 27th May 1927) was the daughter of Charles Almon Baldwin of Richmond, Virginia, and was born in the US.


Above is a rough map of how to get to the monument, next time I go I will make a more detailed track.  Basically go in the entrance

and turn off at a path looking like this to the left.

Looking back should look like this


and the way ahead should look like this, but this is the main cemetery road which you turn off from.
Follow this wide path towards the north of the cemetery. Then turn right when you reach  another wide path, and then right again. You should be able to find the monument, to your right, less than ten monuments along.

Sale of Bryson and Son to Hamilton and Inches

In 1893 Hamilton and Inches acquired established clock makers Robert Bryson & Sons.  Hamilton and Inches, established 1866, started as a goldsmiths and jewellers, and by 1893 were at 87,88 Princess Street. They are still in business, and are now Silversmiths and Clock specialist by Appointment to Her Majesty the Queen, and based at 87, George Street.

Alexander Bryson (1816-1866)

Alexander Bryson married three times.
His third wife was Jane Thompson (1836-), and they had a son, Leonard Horner Bryson, presumably named after Leonard Horner, so presumably they maintained a connection. I think Jane Thompson remarried William H Hardie (1832-), a farmer, and Leonard Horner Bryson (who became a surgeon), lived with them in the 1881 Census.

William Alexander Bryson (1855-1906)

The  fifth child of Alexander Bryson by his first wife, Elizabeth Waterstone Gillespie, was a William Alexander Byson, born 2nd March 1855. His mother died 10th April 1855, and by the 1861 Census, Alexander Bryson was a single parent, with daughter Margaret Gillespie, aged 8, William Alexander, aged 6 and Donald Cuthbert, aged 2. By the 1871 Census. William Alexander is, probably,  a scholar at Abbey Park, in St Andrews, aged 15. This was a boarding school run by the father of Donald MacKenzie Smeaton, who became MP for Stirlingshire. By the 1881 census, William Alexander is living with his uncle, Archibald Richie Gillespie in Leith, and his occupation is Marine Engineer.  He married Edith Agnes Smith (born 1866), and they had a daughter, Alice S.M. Bryson, born about 1890.  He was the creator of the public electric lighting system in Leith in 1897 (one of the first in the world).
Like Robert Bryson senior and Alexander Bryson he was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. One of his proposers was William Thomson (Lord Kelvin). He was elected to the Royal Society of Edinburgh on 2nd April 1888.  There was a probate record for a “William Alexander Bryson of 37, Park Road, Leith, who died 9th July 1906, confirmation of Edith Agnes Smith or Bryson widow, sealed, London.”, but 37, Park Road Leith is occupied by Paul Helm, Retired Supervisor Inland Revenue in the 1901 Census. (William Alexander Bryson, and Edith Agnes Bryson, and Alice were living at 9, Stanley Road, Kinseroft, Leith North, in the 1901 Census.
There is a vandalised monument (which I have not found) to him, (died June 11th 1906) in Warriston Cemetery.
There is a sketch of him by John Lavery in Glasgow Museum’s resource centre.

You need not feel anxious about your daughter, Mr Box

My Great Aunt, Margaret Box, left Britain on the 17th of September 1918 to serve as a nurse in Salonica and Serbia.
Her father, my Great Grandfather, John Box, clearly did not hear from her for a while as he contacted The Scottish Women’s Hospitals for Home and Foreign Service (London Society of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies).
They wrote back to him on 3rd October, with the following letter:

This was a different world, where communication was much slower (as well as women not yet having the vote in the United Kingdom). Fortunately there was indeed no cause for concern, and Margaret was on a Troopship in the Gulf of Corinth.
 

Margaret Box, nursing in Salonica and Serbia

Margaret Ada Box (1890-1986), my Great Aunt, daughter of John Box, volunteered as a Civilian Red Cross Nurse in 1918. She has a record at Forces War Records (which needs Full Access Membership to see it),  which shows that her Department was “Scot. Women”, her Rank was “N.S.” (whatever that is), her Service Number was “cert no. 17847 passport no. 202114”, her Duty Location was “Salonica“.
If that was all I had to go on, this would be a very short topic, however Great Aunt Margaret wrote a number of letters home, and collected some mementos, which I will scan and post, updating this post as I do so.
The letters to her were sent in envelopes made from newspapers by disabled soldiers.

Background

The Long, Long Trail website has a military overview of the Salonika Campaign – a little known part of the First World War. The Salonika Campaign Society website covers the campaign in more detail,  even having a section on Medical Services. The British Army was in Greece as allies of Serbia (which had been invaded by Austria Hungary in 1915 , and as allies of the Greek Provisional Government of National Defence – a breakaway Greek Government,  opposed to the neutral position of the Greek King Constantine I.
The Battle of Dobro Pole between 15th and 18th September was a major breakthrough in the Macedonian Front, leading to the Liberation of Serbia by the Allied forces. They pushed up through Serbia, presumably establishing a hospital at Sarajevo, as that is where Margaret Box worked.

Timeline of Margaret Box Journey to the Hospital Unit in Serbia, and return

  • 19th November 1890 – Born in Croydon
  • 17th September 1918 (aged 27) – Waterloo, Southampton, Paris,Lyon,Modena,Turin, Genoa, Rome
  • Week in Rome
  • 29th September – to Taranto
  • 3rd October – Troopship  to Gulf of Corinth – Iteon (first night in a tent) – Also the Scottish Women’s Hospitals secretary writes to John Box to say that his daughter is (probably) safe.
  • 6th October – Train to Bralo – possibly the village or pass of Gravia (Location of the 49th Stationary Hospital) where Margaret started working. There is also a  War Grave Cemetery for casualties who did not recover – Margaret writes to her parents from here.
  • 18th October – Train to Thessaly, Larissa
  • 19th October – Salonica
  • 20th October – Monastir to Prilip – in meat lorries. Stay to help at hospital.  (interestingly two other intrepid women, Anne Powell and Flora Sandes, seem to have made similar journeys)
  • 25th October – On to join rest by car – Veles, Uskub, Skopije – join unit
  • 25th November – Train (cattle trucks) – Veles, Strumitze (bridge destroyed – by lorry to next station), rejoin train to Salonica
  • 3rd December – embark SS Danube.
  • 10th December – Gallipoli
  • 11th December – Taranto
  • 13th December – Bay of Vebova, Topli Bay, Cataro Bay
  • 16th December – Trip to Castelnova
  • 17th December – left SS Danube. Train to Zelinka, Ragusa, Hum, Mostar
  • 18th December – To Sarajevo (where Germans were still running the hospital)
  • 22nd March 1919 – Left Sarajevo to Ragusa
  • 27th March – Boat to Spalato (Split)
  • 29th March – arrive Fuime
  • 30th March – another boat to Polla, Venice
  • 3rd April – Train from Venice to Pisa
  • 8th April – Genoa (night in station), Nice, Marseilles
  • 9th April – Paris – St James Hotel (diary ends)
  • 12th April – Telegram from Folkstone “Home tonight Margaret”

 

Renowed Rebbecks

My Great Great Aunt was Lilian Jane Stevens,  the Aunt of my Grandmother, born Doris Joan Stevens, who married George Edward Lines in 1922.
Lilan Jane Stevens married Edward Wise Rebbeck in 1896. The Lines family kept in touch with the Rebbeck family, as is shown by their news appearing in The Pickwick Paper, a family newsletter produced by my father and Uncle Michael.
This page is about some of the more famous Rebbecks.

Edward Wise Rebbeck (1842-1913)

Edward Wise Rebbeck – click in the image to see a Flickr page about him.

The middle name of Wise comes from his mother, Jane Irwin Wise (1808- ?), rather than because he was particularly sagacious, but he did achieve a lot.

Early life and first marriage

His father, William Edward Rebbeck (1803-1879) was a house agent who had 9 children – Edward had 2 elder sisters and 6 younger siblings.
 
Edward Wise Rebbeck married Susannah Kerley (1851-1893) in 1872 – she would have been the Mayoress referred to in the invitation above, but she died in 1893. He was Mayor of Bournemouth (1891-1892).
He laid the foundation stone of the Royal Victoria Hospital, Westbourne on 21st June 1887, to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria.

Foundation Stone of Royal Victoria Hospital, click for Flickr page.

In 1896  he sponsored a window at St Peter’s Chruch, in memory of his late wife, her foster parents, his parents, and his sister.
Dedication plaque in St Peter’s church, click to see the Flickr page with more information.

Marriage to Lilian Jane Stevens and family

Around February 1896 he married Lilian Jane Stevens at St Mary’s Church, Tyndalls Park, Clifton, Bristol.

St Mary’s church, Tyndall’s Park – click the image for more information about the church.

Edward and Lilian had five children

  1. Edward William Wise Rebbeck (1897-1916)
  2. Lionel George Rebbeck (1899-1913)
  3. Leopold Edward Rebbeck (1901-1983)
  4. Lilian Grace Rebbeck (1903-?)
  5. Philip Charles Rebbeck (1905-1910)

He also clearly kept in close touch with his brothers and sisters as in the 1901 Census he has living with him, as well as Lilian Jane, Edward W W and Lionel George his niece Harriet E Gooch. There is also Lilian’s sister, who is now Minnie S Dole and her daughter Muriel.  There was also a Cook, a Housemaid, a Kitchenmaid an a Nurse.
The Nurse would be needed as in 1901 Edward W W would have been 4, Lionel George 2, and Lilian would have been expecting Leopold Edward.
Harriet Elizabeth Gooch was the daughter of Edward Wise’s older sister Susannah Kate Rebbeck (1840 to 1923), who married George Gooch (1839-1907). Harriet was 29 at the time, and presumably working in Bournemouth, as her parents were living (I think) in Hampshire at the time.
Lilian’s sister Minnie Stevens (1863-?) married James Dole (1830-1899), a wealth importer of tins of fruit from the USA,  in 1885, also at St Mary’s church, Tyndell’s Park. It would be interesting to find that he was related to the more famous James Dole (1877-1958), but I have not found such a connection. Muriel was born in 1886, so would have been 12 or 13 when her father died, and was 14 at the time of the 1901 Census.
They were all living at Stafford Park Lodge. (OSM)

Stafford Park Lodge – from Flickr

Freemasonry

Edward was a initiated into the Lodge of Hengist (No. 195) in 1863.

  • Provincial Grand Steward (1868)
  • Provincial Grand Pursuivant (1869)
  • Provincial Senior Grand Warden (1878)
  • Founder Member of Hengist Royal Arch Chapter No.195 (1886)
  • Most Wise Sovereign of Vigne Chapter (Rose Croix) No.25

Death and Burial

Edward Wise Rebbeck died on 13th March 1913. He is buried at St Peter’s Church, along with Mary Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft and Lewis_Tregonwell (founder of Bournemouth) and several other famous people.

Edward William Wise Rebbeck (1897-1916)

Edward William Wise Rebbeck

He went to Charterhouse School, the joined the army, probably in 1914. He became a temporary 2nd Lieutenant in the Kings Royal Rifle Corps. (from Lives of the First World War).
He must have transferred, or been seconded, to the Royal Flying Corps, and died in an air accident on 24th April 1916.

B.E.2c 4511, 16 RS, Beaulieu
Sideslipped off low turn and nose dived, Talbot Village, near Bournemouth
2Lt Edward William Wise Rebbeck (19) killed

He is mentioned in the Roll of Honour at his old school, which also has a picture of his memorial.

Lionel George Rebbeck (1899-1913)

In the 1911 Census we was a pupil at Wychwood School, Braidley Road Bournemouth .  This is also the school attended by Group Captain Peter Townsend, although much later.
He died in 1913, aged 13.

Leopold Edward Rebbeck (1901-1983)

Born 26th July 1901, he possibly served as a Midshipman on HMS Vivid, a Navy Shore Establishment,  in 1914. During World War One he served on HMS Erin. From 1932 to 1935 he was on HMY Victoria and Albert. In 1935, while serving on the the Victoria and Albert he received the King George V Silver Jubilee Medal (along with a lot of other people). He was Assistant Naval Attaché to the USA during World War Two, which may have been where he was going when he was mentioned as sailing to Barbados on HMS Vindictive in the Pickwick Paper.  He also served on HMS Birmingham during the war. In 1946 he was Commanding Officer, RN Air Station Anthorn.
He went to to be Fleet Engineer Officer to C in C Mediterranean in 1949, ADC to King George VI, 1951–52; ADC to the Queen, 1952; Rear-Admiral Reserve Aircraft, 1952–55, retired. He retired from the Navy on 3rd October 1955.
He was at the Vickers Group, 1956–66. Mem., Soc. Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (New York).
He was made a companion of the Order of the Bath in the 1954 New Year Honours, and a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1956 New Year Honours.
He died on 23rd May 1953.

Lilian Grace Rebbeck (1903-1918)

She was known in the family as Gracie, and died in 1918, aged 15.

Philip Charles Rebbeck (1905-1910)

He was another of the many lives cut tragically short, dying aged five years old, which was not unusual for that era.

In the 1900s, 33% of deaths occurred in the under fives and only 13% occurred over the age of 75

Lilian Jane Stevens/Rebbeck/Cardew (1872-1938)

The 5th child of William Stevens (1838-1913) and Sarah Elizabeth Locock (1842-1909), she was born in Bristol.
When she married the widower Edward Wise Rebbeck in 1896 she would have been 23 and he would have been about 54.
After the death of Edward Wise Rebbeck in 1913, Lilian continued to live in Stafford Park Lodge. She married Reginald Kirby Cardew (1862-1954) in 1919.
Reginald was the son of the Reverend George Cardew and Marthanna Caroline Alice Kirby. He was educated at Oxford, and in 1911 was a tutor, living, with his widowed mother, then aged 70, at what was probably the family home at St Minver, East Liss, Hampshire. Boarding with them were 4 male students and they were looked after by 3 female servants. His elder brother Colonel George Hereward CARDEW CBE DSO was awarded the Distinguished Service Order in 1902, and was awarded a CBE in 1911.
They lived at Stafford Park lodge until her death on 30th December 1938. She had an estate worth £6488 15s 5d and her executors were Cedric Champion Stevens (my Great Uncle, known in the family as Peter) Glass manufacturers clerk and William Gerald Stevens (I am not sure where he is on the family tree), commercial clerk.
Reginald died at Truro on 1st January 1954.

Justus Reitze – German immigrant bakes his way to success

My Great, Great, Great, Grandfather, Justus Reitze was born in Germany around 1800. The information  I have about him is rather sketchy, for example I do not know where in Germany he came from, or when he came to Britain.
The early 19th Century was an unstable time in Germany. In 1805 during the War of the Third Coalition Napoleon’s armies were fighting in most of the area between Munich and Frankfurt, mostly against Austrian armies. Even Hanover, the historic home of the royal family of the time (George III was also Elector of Hanover), was occupied by Napoleon’s forces. The war would have been very disruptive for the civilian population and many people must have been displaced.
Even after the formation of the German Confederation in 1815, bringing a respite from wars, there were other reasons to move.  Germany was experiencing its own demographic  transition, and the population grew 60% from 1815 to 1865. As I wrote about in the post about Amazing Love,  Demographics and Mass migrations this also leads to emigration, in Germany, 1.2 million emigrated in the 1850s.
Whatever his reason, Justus Reitze came to England at some point and set up as a baker, which is shown as his occupation on his marriage certificate. This is the  earliest document I have about him.
Justus married Elizabeth Kleinhen at St Matthews, Bethnal Green on 15th of  February 1826. He would have been about 26. She was younger – I do not have a birth certificate, but the 1841 Census gives his age as 40 and hers as 30, (but ages were rounded down to the nearest 5 years)  so she would have been between 16 and 21. The Marriage Act of 1753 required the consent of the parents for participants under 21,  however the witnesses  were Adam and Caroline Kleinhen, presumably her parents. I have not found a birth record for her, but the 1841 Census shows her as born in the same  County.  Adam Kleinhen may have been from Baden.
Elizabeth gave birth to a son, Henry, on 21st Jaunary 1827, and he was baptised at St Matthews on 11th March. Fortunately  St Matthews is one of the places which adds the date of birth to the baptism register.
On 26th August 1828 Elizabeth Reitze, my Great Great Grandmother, was born, and she was baptised on 12th October 1828.
On 25th September 1830 another son, John, was born, and baptised on 7th November.
By the 1841 Census Justus, his wife Elizabeth, and children Henry, Elizabeth and John were living in a house in Bethnal Green. I think they have a 50-55 year old shopman, John Peters (who might have been employed to deliver bread) and Eliza Hagis, a 15-20 year old housemaid as well.
A court case, heard at the Old Bailey  on 1st March 1847, gives some interesting insights.
Click the image, or here, for a transcript.
Charles Gibson, the accused, was living in the house with Justus, as apparently was Justus’s sister – I have no idea who she was and I think this is the only reference to her.
On 2nd June 1846 his daughter Elizabeth married William Webster at St Stephen, Coleman Street.  William Webster (1823-1888) was a  Pastry Cook in the 1851 Census, so he and Elizabeth probably met via baking.
I can not find Justus (or Elizabeth) in the 1851 Census, but he does appear in the 1851 Register of Electors. This shows his address as 6, Baden Place, Bethnal Green, and that he owns two freehold houses, shown as “Thurlow-place,Green-street and Globe-street, Patch and Lemay tenants”. The 1832 Reform Act extended the vote to adult males owning land worth more than £10. Baden  Place no longer exists but it led off Andrews Road (OSM).
Around October 1853 Justus’s wife, Elizabeth died, after 27 years of marriage.
In the 1856 Post Office Directory he was listed as a Baker at 49, Green Street, Bethnal Green.

Green Street, Bethnal Green

Green Street no longer exists, but click the map, or this link, for more infomation about its history. This would be one of the properties  he owned on his voter registration.
Also listed as a baker in the 1856 directory was John Reitze, presumably his son, as he was at 24, Globe Terrace, Globe Road, Mile End (OSM). This was probably the other property he owned.
By the 1861 Census Justus was living at 9, Adelphi Terrace, Old Ford Road, Bethnal Green, with a 46 year old housekeeper.  Alelphi  Terrace no longer exists but it led off Old Ford Road (OSM) which still does. According to British History Online “terraces were built fronting northward on Old Ford Road from 1845: George’s Place and Adelphi Terrace west of the junction with Bonner Lane, and Park Terrace to the east.” (not to be confused with the other Adelphi Terrace).
He moved some time after that to 46, Sewardstone Road (OSM), where he died on the 13th December 1890. His will was proved by Joseph Eglese of Cornhill in the City of London, Silversmith, and William Webster of Gracechurch Street, now a Confectioner, and Justus’s daughter,  now Elizabeth Webster. His effects  were under £1,500 . Using the calculator at www.measuringworth.com this would be worth from £129,000 (Retail Price Index) to £2,640,000 (share of GDP) in 2015 term. Not bad for an immigrant baker.